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PostgreSQL 14 brings performance boosts

William Tsu
Data Analyst
Experienced data analyst working with data visualization, cloud computing and ETL solutions.
October 15, 2021

PostgreSQL, a resourceful data management system recognized for its dependability and robustness, privileges from over 25 years of open source development from a global innovator community, and has become the best open-source relational database for institutions of all extents. PostgreSQL 14 takes a blend of attributes that enable builders and officials to deploy their data-backed applications. PostgreSQL remains to add inventions on complex data types, comprising a more valuable entry for JSON and assistance for non-contiguous ranges of data. This contemporary clearance expands to PostgreSQL's trend on boosting high performance and disseminated data workloads, with progress in connection concurrency, high-write workloads, query parallelism, and logical replication and ascertains the global PostgreSQL community’s agreement to nailing objection and proceeding to formulate creative database software that is employed by both large and small industries.

SQL Performance, Conformance, and Convenience

Query planning and execution benefit from enhancements in PostgreSQL 14, this release comprise several modifications to PostgreSQL's query parallelism backing, encompassing the promising enactment of parallel sequential scans, the proficiency for PL/pgSQL to perform parallel queries when utilizing the RETURN QUERY command, and enabling REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW to perpetrate parallel queries. Besides, inquiries requests looking for nested loop enrolls can discern performance privileges through excess concealment that is upheld in PostgreSQL 14. Comprehensive statistics can presently be employed in PostgreSQL 14 for expressions. Further, window functions can currently assist from incremental sorts, a character initiated in PostgreSQL 13. Stored methods, which enact transaction control in a block of code, can presently retreat data by using OUT parameters. PostgreSQL 14 instructs the mastery to "bin", or align, timestamps to a specific duration operating the date_bin function. This release furthermore strengthens the SQL conforming SEARCH and CYCLE clauses to assist with ordering and cycle detection for recursive common table manifestations.

PostgreSQL 14 brings performance boosts

Performance Improvements for Heavy Workloads

PostgreSQL 14 equips a hefty throughput modification on workloads that operate unique hookups, with some benchmarks inferring a 2x speedup. This release prolongs the current advancements to the administration of B-tree indexes by curtailing index bloat on tables with frequently revised indexes. PostgreSQL 14 initiates the potential to pipeline queries to a database, which can considerably enrich rendition over huge latency rapport or for workloads with several minor writes (INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE) systems. As this is a client-side element, you can employ the pipeline method with any contemporary PostgreSQL database with the edition 14 client or a client driver created with version 14 of libpq.

How the PostgreSQL update boosts database performance

PostgreSQL 14 is a testament to the commitment of the global PostgreSQL congregation in dealing with feedback and progressing to provide creative database software that is deployed by institutions big and small. PostgreSQL 14 launches a sequel of performance-related advancements across database policies. Mainly, PostgreSQL 14 boosts effective and idle connection scaling, which will be a great support. The application supports 1,000 concurrent hookups during peak times and foresees that the recent connection management characteristics will likely reduce critical CPU usage during these vital instants. The highlighted unique aspects in PostgreSQL 14 are strived at encouraging query and memory troubleshooting. One such memory element is pg_backend_memory_contexts, which displays users how memory is being manipulated by the database. Various factors that formerly instructed you to use additions to gain that perception have presently been incorporated into the core.

PostgreSQL 14 considerably enhances throughput for responsibilities that desire a huge amount of connections, with some experiments suggesting a speedup. This version creates last enhancements to B-tree index supervision by reducing index bloat on tables with repeatedly revised indexes. PostgreSQL 14 demands the proficiency of a database that can largely facilitate execution across high-latency connections. Since the pipeline aspect is a client-side characteristic, you can manipulate it with any prevailing PostgreSQL database using either the edition 14 clients or a client driver built using version 14 of libpq. This latest emancipation of PostgreSQL progresses the users' potential to govern data workloads at scale, improves observability, and comprises modern spotlights that enable application designers.

For workloads with numerous connections, the PostgreSQL 14 improvement duplicates the execution on some criteria. Massive workloads, and workloads with various minor write systems, will also profit from the unique mastery to pipeline queries into the database. This can boost operation, rendition, and probably helps for many connections. This client-side aspect is accessible for interpretation 14 clients or contemporary PostgreSQL databases with client drivers, on the way ahead to behold the built with version 14 libpq. For allocated workloads, the logical counterpart facilitates you to spew in-progress transactions to your subscribers, enhancing rendition by about large transactions. In part, exterior data wrappers for toiling with federated workloads across PostgreSQL and different databases can presently take benefit of PostgreSQL 14’s query parallelism.

Improved query planning and execution augment help for parallel processing of queries constitute better parallel sequential scan execution. Queries that employ nested loop enrolls may prosper from employing a distinct cache in PostgreSQL 14. Range samples instantly aid contiguous ranges through “multirange” data categories. Multirange is a systematic roster of non-overlapping ranges that facilitates innovators to generate reasonable queries to rectify sophisticated range series. JSON data can be examined by expending subscripts and the boosted performance of the vacuum system for database maintenance. Optimization includes reducing B-tree overhead. Documented protocols that permit transaction management in blocks of code can presently retreat data using the OUT parameter. Extended logistics can now be used as expressions.

JSON Conveniences and Multiranges

PostgreSQL has profited from handling JSON data since the emancipation of PostgreSQL 9.2, even though the return of values operated an excellent syntax. PostgreSQL 14 directly permits you to access JSON data operating subscripts, e.g. a query like SELECT ('{ "postgres": { "release": 14 }}'::jsonb)['postgres']['release']; currently functions. This aligns PostgreSQL with syntax that is generally acknowledged for procuring data from JSON data. The subscripting framework developed to PostgreSQL 14 can be typically prolonged to other nested data configurations and is furthermore correlated to the hstore data category in this release. Range types, also initially acquitted in PostgreSQL 9.2, shortly have backing for non-contiguous ridges through the outset of the "multirange" data kind. A multirange is a systematic schedule of non-overlapping ranges, which permits developers to compose reasonable queries for handling complicated progressions of ranges. The range categories native to PostgreSQL (dates, times, numbers) aid multiranges, and unique data types can be extended to employ multirange backing.

Enhancements for Distributed Workloads

Distributed PostgreSQL databases exist to aid from PostgreSQL 14 and when using logical recurrence, PostgreSQL can currently stream in-progress transactions to subscribers, with crucial concert advantages for pertaining huge pacts on subscribers. PostgreSQL 14 also broadens diverse distinct performance enhancements to the analytical decoding structure that strengthens systematic recurrence. Foreign data wrappers, which are employed for helping with federated workloads across PostgreSQL and additional databases, can presently leverage query parallelism in PostgreSQL 14. This release executes this proficiency in the postgres_fdw, the foreign-data wrapper that interfaces with distinct PostgreSQL databases. In extension to benefiting query parallelism, postgres_fdw can presently bulk insert information on foreign tables and drift table partitions with the IMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMA directive.

Performance enhancements

PostgreSQL 14 continues the performance optimization of modern versions under numerous load ailments. This edition has extremely enriched the transaction throughput for a huge sum of database relations, whether the transaction is strong or idle. PostgreSQL 14 further reduced B- Resource consumption of tree index, comprise Table bloat incited by systematic index updates. In GiST indexes, you can pre-sort the information during the framing method. The ability to formulate indexes faster and curtail index volume can be beneficial. SP-GiST Indexes Support Overlay index, retain entrance to INCLUDE Clause expands additional areas to the index that are not searchable.

Administration and Observability

PostgreSQL 14 boosts its set-off incomes to the vacuuming system, incorporating a hike for curtailing entrance from B-Trees. This release also strengthens a vacuum "emergency mode" that is constructed to deter transaction ID wraparound. ANALYZE, rectified to improve database statistics, presently steers quite promptly in PostgreSQL 14 expected to its performance upswings. Constriction for PostgreSQL's TOAST system, which is wielded to store bigger data like blocks of text or geometries, can now be configured. PostgreSQL 14 adds LZ4 contraction for TOAST sections while maintaining assistance for pglz compression. PostgreSQL 14 improves numerous modern features to support surveying and observability, comprising the ability to track the growth of COPY commands, write-ahead-log (WAL) action, and statistics on replication slots. Enabling compute_query_id lets you distinctly track an inquiry through considerable PostgreSQL features, encompassing pg_stat_activity, EXPLAIN VERBOSE, and more. Further, this release instantly renders the standards-compliant more surveillance and many functional systems the default on fresh PostgreSQL models.


PostgreSQL creators proceed to work on juicing the ultimate performance valid out of this well-known open-source SQL database server. PostgreSQL 14 fosters the procedure of selecting read-only, and write-only capabilities to users on tables, notions, and schemas employing the predefined functions pg read all data and pg write all data. Besides, this version shifts the default password oversight and authentication network for unique PostgreSQL instances to the standards-compliant SCRAM-SHA-256 password administration and authentication technique.