WHAT IS Node.js?
ISSUES WITH Node.js
One of the major issues with Node.js was that it lacked consistency. The API and compatibility of Node.js kept changing frequently forcing the developers to change the codes within frequent intervals. Even though the modules in Node.js are mature, there are tools in the npm registry that do not serve the purpose. The registry is not well structured and lacks quality coding standards. Another major drawback of Node.js is its inability to perform high computation tasks.
Here are the common challenges faced by Node.js:
• Security issues
• Node.js, any program can be written to the file system while installing untrusted package files from npm.
• Issues with the module system
• GYP to build a module that links to C library is a major issue, and compatibility of module system with browsers is under question.
• Async APIs
WHAT IS DENO?
Deno was developed with:
• Rust language: Node.js was written in C++ and Deno is written in Rust language.
• Tokio: a runtime written in rust language for writing applications
Deno vs Node.js
Even though the purposes of both platforms are the same, they use different mechanisms. ES Modules is used by Deno as the default module system, while that of Node.js is CommonJS. Runtime has no access to the network, file system or environment in Deno. Access is granted explicitly guaranteeing better security. As Deno supports TypeScript out of the box, there is no need to installing and configuring tools to write TypeScript code. There are built-in tools like a test runner, code formatter and bundler in Deno.
There are a few advantages to using Deno. It is possible to host modules everywhere by importing code via URL. Deno eliminates the use of the package manager. There is no need for a centralized registry for distributing Deno packages. Since all modules are downloaded, compiled and cached on the application run, there isn't any need for a dependency list.
Deno is similar to browsers and uses URLs for loading dependencies. It aims for better compatibility and provides a wide range of Web API. It designs API to promote TypeScript features. Deno minimizes core API size and provides a large standard library. It uses message passing channels. Deno could be used to perform computations and to create web servers.
Currently, there are over 150 contributors to Deno. Deno is a more secure and open source project that is a better alternative to Node.js.
TOP FEATURES OF DENO
Deno focuses on security than Node.js. It executes the code in sandbox denoting that runtime will not have access to the file system, network or other scripts. Users should explicitly allow the code to access these resources during runtime either by using flags or by responding positively. Deno does not allow the performance of delicate actions unless specific flags are passed, and run in a 'non-privilege' mode in default. The communications that are conducted within Deno are by message passing (Rust Language), allowing only a single auditable point for communications. Deno always dies on uncaught errors, unlike Node.js which adds to the security offered by Deno.
Deno is similar to browsers as it loads modules using URLs. Deno packages can be distributed without the aid of a centralized registry or third-party module such as npm as it uses URLs. Creators can host their code wherever they are fit on the internet as the codes are imported using URLs. Deno downloads and caches all the imported modules. Unless the modules are asked for reloading, Deno will not download those modules. Since Deno caches all downloaded modules, developers can access the downloaded modules even when their website crashes or when they do not have internet access. Deno does not have external dependencies and has a centralized collection of standard modules that are reviewed by the core team. Deno is written with proper V8, rust, and tokio and has implemented Deno standard library in TypeScript. Deno is a safe environment to use, to build small scripting project in TypeScript.
• Browser compatibility
Deno has in-built tools that aim to be compatible with browsers. The in-built tools will transpile codes, enabling them to run even in older versions of browsers that do not support new versions of the language, preventing unnecessary bloats.
• TypeScript support
• The standard library
Deno has a standard library that is easy to handle and import.